The Ultimate Computer Language Guide
High level programming languages have evolved as a means to enable programmers
to write independent of systems specific details, in order to make programs
which are highly compatible across a variety of systems. Further scripting
languages, which are generally interpreted as opposed to compiled, have been
established which can automate specific functions on a system, or server, while
remaining highly compatible over an array of systems. The following are examples
of High Level programming languages and scripting languages.
Awk is a 1970s era UNIX scripting language that originally stood for the name of
its 3 authors. Like many scripting languages it focuses on text processing.
Programming - A reference
The AWK Language
- A tutorial
The AWK Programming Language - What to do with AWK
Bash is a type of Shell Script. Shell scripting languages are mostly intended
for automating system tasks, as opposed to offering truly dynamic programming
Scripting - A Manual
GNU Bash - A Reference
Advanced Bash Scripting - Using Bash for advanced programming
C is one of the earliest examples of a high level programming language that was
portable between systems. To this day most UNIX and UNIX-like systems ship with
a C Compiler.
Programming - A reference Guide
Programming in C - Language Essentials
The C Programming Language - Syntax Examples
C++ emerged in the late 1980s to implement advanced object oriented features in
C. It took C as its basis and extended it enforcing classes and object
inheritance, as well as other OOP features.
C++ - The first C++ Implementation.
- Language Tutorials
ANSI/ISO Working Paper
Common LISP is a specific dialect of LISP, and thus a language in its own right.
LISP itself was designed to support specialized types of both Object Oriented,
and Procedural programming.
- An Introduction
Working with Common Lisp - An Interactive Approach
Common Lisp - A Windows Implementation
Eiffel is an early object oriented programming language. While it is not well
known today many of the concepts it introduced found their way into other
Eiffel - An Introduction to the Language
Eiffel - Language Semantics
The Eiffel Programming Language - An Overview
Emacs Lisp is a separate dialect of Lisp designed for use with the EMACS text
editor. It acts much as shell-scripting languages do in its integration with
Emacs Lisp - A Manual
Emacs & Lisp - An Introduction
GNU Emacs - A Tutorial
Erlang is a programming language and runtime environment. It is one of few
languages that support software 'hot swapping' which enables code to be
rewritten without shutting down the program itself.
Concurrency Oriented Programming
Programming - The development of the language
Experience Report - Erlang and Acoustic Rays
Forth is a Stack Computing Language. Basically the language represents two
virtual stacks to accomplish algorithms.
Forth Interest Group
- Works to Popularize Forth
Programming - A Brief Introduction
Programming in Forth - A Users Guide
Haskell is a scripting language inspired by Python. The current version is
- Standard Libraries
Modules - A Formal Specification.
Icon is based on the SNOBOL programming language. Its name predates popular use
of Icons in graphical interfaces. It is still used in artificial intelligence.
Icon FAQ -
Frequently Asked Questions about Icon.
Programming - A Tutorial
The Icon Programming Language - History & Features
Java is one of the first truly object oriented languages. It was developed by
Sun Microsystems originally as an operating system which could power appliances.
It incorporates aspects of interpreted and compiled languages while remaining
highly cross platform.
Concurrent Programming - Applications of Java
Java - An Interactive Tutorial
Programming in Java - An Introduction
popularity. It has also been used as an inter-application scripting language,
mostly on Windows.
Lisp is one of the older high-level languages. It was originally targeted at
mathematic implementations but has evolved to become the most common artificial
intelligence programming language.
Implementing Lisp - A History
Lisp - An Analysis
The Lisp Programming Language - Where did it come from?
Lua is a simply procedural language that is byte code interpreted. It stands out
for its memory management and prototyping.
About Lua - From
Lua & Lua AV
- Using Lua for graphics programming
Processing - Using Lua for Sound Processing
Mercury is based on Prolog. Mercury can actually be compiled inline within
several other programming languages like JAVA.
Shell Programming - Includes information on Mercury
Mercury - An Introduction
Project - A History
OCaml is an attempt to implement object-oriented syntax in Caml. It is related
Objective Caml - An Introduction
Caml Programming - An Overview
- From the OCaml Study Group
PHP is a hypertext preprocessor. It is largely similar in syntax to Perl but was
originally intended as a means of making hypertext code more dynamic.
PHP - Web Design References
Scripting - A Server Side Language
PHP.net - Resources and
Popular Data Services
Perl is a command line language similar to C, and Shell Script. It is one of the
better text-processing languages and originally stood for Practical Extraction &
Reporting Language. It is highly used on the Internet in CGI programming.
Perl.org - Documentation of
the Perl Programming Language
Perl - Programming Essentials
PERL - The
Practical Extraction & Report Language
Pike is a high level programming language similar to C. It came about largely as
a means for coding Multi-User Dungeon games.
Programming - An Introduction
Pike - A Simple Manual
Programming in Pike - 5 Rules
Python is a scripting language that borrows a lot from Perl and JAVA. It is also
one of the few languages that enforce structured formatting which differentiates
it greatly from the languages that inspired it.
Python.org - The main
resource for Python Programming
Python - Using Python as an introduction to programming.
Python Programming - Quick Tutorials
Ruby is a multi-paradigm language with syntax similar to Perl. It is often
compared to Java in as much as both languages borrow object-oriented syntax
pioneered by small talk.
Ruby Programming - Syntax & Examples
Ruby - The Programming Environment
Ruby on the Internet - A Tutorial
SML is the current descendant of the ML programming language. The most common
current implementation is Moscow.
Programming - Notes
Tcl, like Perl, and other scripting languages, is an interpreted scripting
language designed mostly for console use. It is extensible through high level
languages like Java.
Programming in Tcl - An Introduction