The Ultimate Computer Language Guide


High level programming languages have evolved as a means to enable programmers to write independent of systems specific details, in order to make programs which are highly compatible across a variety of systems. Further scripting languages, which are generally interpreted as opposed to compiled, have been established which can automate specific functions on a system, or server, while remaining highly compatible over an array of systems. The following are examples of High Level programming languages and scripting languages.

Awk
Awk is a 1970s era UNIX scripting language that originally stood for the name of its 3 authors. Like many scripting languages it focuses on text processing.

AWK Programming - A reference
The AWK Language - A tutorial
The AWK Programming Language - What to do with AWK

Bash
Bash is a type of Shell Script. Shell scripting languages are mostly intended for automating system tasks, as opposed to offering truly dynamic programming abilities.

Bash Scripting - A Manual
GNU Bash - A Reference
Advanced Bash Scripting - Using Bash for advanced programming

C
C is one of the earliest examples of a high level programming language that was portable between systems. To this day most UNIX and UNIX-like systems ship with a C Compiler.

C Programming - A reference Guide
Programming in C - Language Essentials
The C Programming Language - Syntax Examples

C++
C++ emerged in the late 1980s to implement advanced object oriented features in C. It took C as its basis and extended it enforcing classes and object inheritance, as well as other OOP features.

Stroustrup C++ - The first C++ Implementation.
C++ Programming - Language Tutorials
C++ - ANSI/ISO Working Paper

Common Lisp
Common LISP is a specific dialect of LISP, and thus a language in its own right. LISP itself was designed to support specialized types of both Object Oriented, and Procedural programming.

Common Lisp - An Introduction
Working with Common Lisp - An Interactive Approach
GNU Common Lisp - A Windows Implementation

Eiffel
Eiffel is an early object oriented programming language. While it is not well known today many of the concepts it introduced found their way into other languages.

Eiffel - An Introduction to the Language
Programming in Eiffel - Language Semantics
The Eiffel Programming Language - An Overview

Emacs Lisp
Emacs Lisp is a separate dialect of Lisp designed for use with the EMACS text editor. It acts much as shell-scripting languages do in its integration with EMACS.

Emacs Lisp - A Manual
Emacs & Lisp - An Introduction
GNU Emacs - A Tutorial

Erlang
Erlang is a programming language and runtime environment. It is one of few languages that support software 'hot swapping' which enables code to be rewritten without shutting down the program itself.

Erlang - Concurrency Oriented Programming
Erlang Programming - The development of the language
Experience Report - Erlang and Acoustic Rays

Forth

Forth is a Stack Computing Language. Basically the language represents two virtual stacks to accomplish algorithms.

Forth Interest Group - Works to Popularize Forth
Forth Programming - A Brief Introduction
Programming in Forth - A Users Guide

Haskell
Haskell is a scripting language inspired by Python. The current version is Haskell 98.

Haskell 98 - Standard Libraries
Haskell Modules - A Formal Specification.

Icon
Icon is based on the SNOBOL programming language. Its name predates popular use of Icons in graphical interfaces. It is still used in artificial intelligence.

Icon FAQ - Frequently Asked Questions about Icon.
Icon Programming - A Tutorial
The Icon Programming Language - History & Features

Java

Java is one of the first truly object oriented languages. It was developed by Sun Microsystems originally as an operating system which could power appliances. It incorporates aspects of interpreted and compiled languages while remaining highly cross platform.

Concurrent Programming - Applications of Java
Java - An Interactive Tutorial
Programming in Java - An Introduction

JavaScript
JavaScript is an interpreted language mostly employed in web browsers. JavaScript began as Netscape's LiveScript, and was rebranded due to Java's popularity. It has also been used as an inter-application scripting language, mostly on Windows.

What is Javascript? - A History.
JavaScript - An Introduction
Applications of JavaScript - A brief tutorial

Lisp
Lisp is one of the older high-level languages. It was originally targeted at mathematic implementations but has evolved to become the most common artificial intelligence programming language.

Implementing Lisp - A History
Lisp - An Analysis
The Lisp Programming Language - Where did it come from?

Lua

Lua is a simply procedural language that is byte code interpreted. It stands out for its memory management and prototyping.

About Lua - From Lua.org
Lua & Lua AV - Using Lua for graphics programming
Audio Processing - Using Lua for Sound Processing

Mercury
Mercury is based on Prolog. Mercury can actually be compiled inline within several other programming languages like JAVA.

Shell Programming - Includes information on Mercury
HAL & Mercury - An Introduction
The Mercury Project - A History

OCaml
OCaml is an attempt to implement object-oriented syntax in Caml. It is related to SML.

Objective Caml - An Introduction
Caml Programming - An Overview
OCaml - From the OCaml Study Group

PHP
PHP is a hypertext preprocessor. It is largely similar in syntax to Perl but was originally intended as a means of making hypertext code more dynamic.

PHP - Web Design References
PHP Scripting - A Server Side Language
PHP.net - Resources and Tutorials


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Perl
Perl is a command line language similar to C, and Shell Script. It is one of the better text-processing languages and originally stood for Practical Extraction & Reporting Language. It is highly used on the Internet in CGI programming.

Perl.org - Documentation of the Perl Programming Language
Perl - Programming Essentials
PERL - The Practical Extraction & Report Language

Pike
Pike is a high level programming language similar to C. It came about largely as a means for coding Multi-User Dungeon games.

Pike Programming - An Introduction
Pike - A Simple Manual
Programming in Pike - 5 Rules

Python
Python is a scripting language that borrows a lot from Perl and JAVA. It is also one of the few languages that enforce structured formatting which differentiates it greatly from the languages that inspired it.

Python.org - The main resource for Python Programming
Teaching With Python - Using Python as an introduction to programming.
Python Programming - Quick Tutorials

Ruby
Ruby is a multi-paradigm language with syntax similar to Perl. It is often compared to Java in as much as both languages borrow object-oriented syntax pioneered by small talk.

Ruby Programming - Syntax & Examples
Ruby - The Programming Environment
Ruby on the Internet - A Tutorial

SML
SML is the current descendant of the ML programming language. The most common current implementation is Moscow.

SML Programming - Notes

Tcl
Tcl, like Perl, and other scripting languages, is an interpreted scripting language designed mostly for console use. It is extensible through high level languages like Java.

Programming in Tcl - An Introduction