Cybercrime: Using Computers as Evidence in Criminal Investigations

Technology is a fixture in the world now. People use computers for playing games, banking, surfing the web, and even committing criminal acts. As technology has evolved to the current level, the law has had to evolve as well. Every year, new laws are drawn up and old ones are improved, and this includes the laws surrounding digital evidence, the right to privacy as well as search and seizure laws.

Seizing Computers without a Warrant
General Guidelines: Lists the general guidelines for seizing computers in criminal investigations.
Pre-Search Guidelines: Discusses pre-search guidelines for computer seizures.
Seizing an In-Home Computer: Laws regarding seizing personal computers.
Compelled Disclosure: Discusses when information has to be disclosed.
Reasonable Expectation of Privacy: A court ruling on the expectations of privacy when a computer is seized.

Using Computers as Evidence
Search and Seizure Guidelines: Lists places to go for information about search and seizure.
Federal Criminal Code Related to Searching and Seizing Computers: Discusses the criminal laws regarding search and seizure of computers.
Computer Crimes: Information on computer crimes and how they are punished.
Prosecuting Computer Crime: Article discussing how the government deals with computer crimes.
Materials on Computer Search and Seizure: Links to information and examples of search warrants in regard to computer crimes.
Electric Crime Scene Investigation: Describes how an electric crime scene investigation progresses.
Computer Forensic Service: Computer forensic service provider.
Acquiring Computer-Generated Evidence: Describes where computer-generated evidence comes from.
The Digital Evidence in the Information Era: Provides information on digital evidence and how it is obtained.
Data Recovery: hard drive data recovery and raid recovery
Fourth Amendment and Digital Evidence: Discusses the role of the Fourth Amendment when it comes to computer crimes.
Search and Seizure Manual: Example of a search and seizure manual.

Digital Evidence
Warrant Specificity in Search & Seizure of Computers: Links to articles discussing computer search warrants.
Digital Evidence in the Courtroom: Discusses how digital evidence is used in the courtroom.
All about Digital Evidence: Where to get digital evidence.
Electronic Discovery: The process of electronic discovery.
History of Digital Evidence: Shows how digital evidence has progressed.

Seizing Computers with a Warrant
Search Warrants and Digital Evidence: Discusses evidence in the digital age.
Computer Search Guidelines: Information on computer search guidelines.
Computer Searches and the Scope of Consent: Shows the role of consent in search warrants for computers.
Consent Searches: A look at computer consented searches.
Employee Rights: Employee rights to computer privacy.
Computer Privacy: Discusses the issue of computer privacy.

The Stored Communications Act
Electronic Communications Privacy Act: A look at the entire SCA.
US Code: Electronic Communication Records: Discusses US codes about communication records.
Electronic Surveillance Example: Illustrates how electronic surveillance was used in one instance.
Electronic Surveillance: Discusses electronic surveillance.
Voluntary Disclosure under the SCA: Provides information on the subject.
Electronic Communications Privacy Act of 2000: A communications bill passed in 2000 that’s related to privacy.
Electronic Communication Service Vs Remote Computing Service: Discusses the pros and cons of different computing services when it comes to privacy.
ECPA in a Nutshell: An overview of the ECPA.
Electronic Crimes Definition: Defines certain computer crimes.
Overview of the SCA: A detailed overview of the act and what it means.

Surveillance in Communications
Digital Surveillance: An overview of digital surveillance and laws regarding it.
Wiretap Protections: Describes protections for the average home against tapping of phones and computers.
Wiretapping in the Home: Discusses how wiretaps are used to gain digital evidence.
Wiretapping, Video Surveillance, and Internet Legal Issues: Discusses the issues faced by wiretaps, and other Internet surveillance acts.
Digital Evidence Authentication: Shows how digital evidence gained from search and seizures is authenticated.
Legal Standards for Admissibility: Discusses what evidence is admissible in court.